History of the Gossen company: Paul Gossen Co. K.-G., Fabrik elektrischer Messgeräte


This story is based on historic information retrieved from several sources. The most reliable information is from Dipl. Ing. Uwe Hitz. Mr Hitz who has worked for Gossen and was responsible for technical documentation and also for the company magazine. In one of the last versions of this magazine an extensive overview is given about company events and products. This list has been published in Flashlite a Photographic historical magazine and private initiative of Salomon Gunter. This overview is published on a separate page. Because the research of the Gossen history is not finished this story will be adapted as soon new information is comes available.

Paul Gossen

Paul Friedrich Karl Gossen, born at  December 13th 1872 in Stargard (Pommern). Son of Gustav Friedrich Wilhelm Gossen and Pauline Wilhelmine Montferin. Died June 30th 1942 in Nürnberg Germany. He was a German businessman and engineer in the field of electro technology. After his years of study at the Gymnasium from Stettin, Paul had a job as precision mechanical engineer and studied at the Technical university of Berlin-Charlotteburg. After his study he stayed at the university and worked there as a engineer. In the year 1903 he switched from employer and went to Reiniger, Gebbert & Schall located in Erlangen. Until he was drafted for the service he worked there as a engineer in the field of X-ray technology. From 1908 until 1916 he worked at the measurement equipment factory from S. Gugenheimer (later Metrawatt). At September 1st 1919 at the age of 46, Paul founded together with his limited partner Otto Cohn the company called "Paul Gossen Co. K.-G., Fabrik elektrischer Messgeräte" in the Pfarrgasse 8 in Baiersdorff. His company was located at the first floor. From his former employer RGS he was able to take over some machines and they also gave him some orders. Together with 3 employees he started the company.

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1. Paul Gossen mit 65
2. Paul Gossen mit Begleitung
3. Von links Vater Paul Hans Elisabeth Mutter Dorothea Charlotte Gossen etwa 1910
4. Im Bild Paul Gossen, der Firmengründer. [Grünewald-14.3]
Electricity was an upcoming technology and in all kind of fields inventions were made. Broadcasting was also one of the new fields of technology and the company of  Gossen developed measuring equipment for this new technology. He started his company with a start-up capital of 60.000 mark brought together by the partners. The workshop and the production was done by 3 employees, Willi Bachmann, Wilhelm Striegel and Andreas Link. Mid of October 1919 the number of employees was already increased to 7 people and one year later the number was 28 employees.
On February 9th 1921, the company moved and was relocated to a location in the city of Erlangen. The company was now located at the Bismarckstrasse 21 in a former washing and bathing house. At the end of the year 1921 the number of employees was again increased to the number of 35 including 6 apprentices.

In the period of 1924/1925 the company came under company supervision due to economical troubles. On may 6th. 1929 his partner Otto Cohn left the company and a new partner, Rosa Gossen, entered the company. Her contribution was the sum of RM. 50.000 (Reichsmarken). During this period numerous test- and measurement equipment were invented and produced. Amongst them a  Hot-wire ampere meter for measuring power and current (1919),a vibration revolution counter (1925) and the Assymeter (1925).

Photolux, first Gossen photoelectric exposure meter.

The inflation, economical crisis and the pre second world war time made it difficult to run a company in these years but Gossen survived and in 1926 the very famous "MAVO" (Multi-Ampere-Volt-Meter) meter was introduced. An universal measuring device special thought for the radio builders and amateurs. Quick the measuring equipment made by Gossen became well known for their high quality and precision. The invention and it's success was very important for the company. In time several different version of the MAVO meter were build during a period of more than 30 years.

1932 Gossen started with the development of the first photoelectric photographic exposure meter. With the aid of Bruno Lange and his company they were able to show the meter on the fair at Leipzig march 1933 with the name Photolux.
 In the German magazine "Photografische Rundschau edition 7 of April 1933" there is the article about the fair  "Photo und Kino messe in Leipzig" with the header "belichtungsmesser" the working of this new equipment, the exposure meter, is explained and with the note: 'These equipment is shown by the company P. Gossen & Co, Erlangen, well known from the 'Mavometer'.

Paul Gossen encountered a production problem because the selenium sensors used in the exposure meter was so expensive, so a competitive price for a exposure meter was not really possible. After negotiations with the manufacturer of these sensors, Electro cell Berlin, he came to an agreement. He solved this problem by giving a guarantee of a purchase of more than 100.000 of these selenium sensors. By this solution, he was able to buy the sensor for an price of RM 7.50 and he was now able to sell this instrument at a price of RM 26.50. Shortly after the presentation of the Photolux this meter is renamed to Ombrux. In the period from 1933 to 1949 further development of the Ombrux has lead to the release of improved or dedicated meters like the Ombrux 2, Blendux, Cimbrux and Parvux. The Sixtus is the last model in line based on the further development of Ombrux. The Parvux is actually a light meter instead of an exposure meter and the Cimbrux dedicated for cine purposes.

Note: Remarkable is the fact that about the same time the Photolux / Ombrux was introduced, there was a company called "Photolux", founded in 1928 with the manufacturing of exposure meters in the Jordanstrasse 6, Industiegelande Albertstadt Dresden. From this company, as far as known, there was never seen a exposure meter produced. On 23 February 1935 this company not longer exist. Could there be a connection between Photolux and Gossen?

1934 The company moved to the factory building located in the Sedanstrasse 20. The number of employees is now 253 and two years later in 1936 the number of employees is now 333.  In 1937 a branch office is opened in a rented location 'Unter den Linden' in Berlin.
In 1939 A new factory building is bought in the Gluckstrasse this is a former brush factory 'Kranzlein' and this building will become in the future the 'Tippa-werk' the factory for the Tippa typewriter.
The political climate is changing and the Nazi's are preparing for war. This means that a lot of German companies are forced to work for the government and function as a part of the war machine to produce products for the navy, the air force and the army. Also Gossen is a part of this and from 1939 to 1945 Gossen is producing measuring equipment to be used at war. Gossen becomes a military company. A part of the production is moved to a bomb free shelter 'bierkeller' (beer cellar) n the 'Erlanger Burgberg'.

For security reasons a lot of German companies are renamed into a code this to prevent the allied armies to find out were specific equipments are manufactured. The companies are listed in a special and very secret list and still not all codes are now. Gossen is renamed to "sdt' in the period  from 1941 to 1942. In the period from 1042 to 1945 the code is changed to "bmr" a lot of these codes can be found in the list called the "German ordnance codes".


  Gossen & Co, Fabrik elektrische Messgeräte, Erlangen.

On 28th of June 1940 the company structure is changed into a "GmbH" 'Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung ', a company with limited liability and the owners are Paul Gossen and his wife Rosa Gossen. The share capital is now RM 1,500.000. The CEO is Ing. Paul Gossen with his son in law dr. Karl Klarner. The company now has a new logo and name; P. Gossen & Co GmbH.
The building and surrounding ground at the Sedanstrasse and also the ground at the östliche Stadtmauer are not included into the company but are rented from the shareholders.

1945 - 1946

In the period 1939 / 1940 an another new factory building is added to the company, the location Nagelsbachstrasse 25. On February 22nd 1941 a 'richtfest' (topping out) is held for this factory building and the offices at the building in the Nagelsbachstrasse 25. From 1939 the production was changed to mass serial production of measuring equipment for telecommunication, engineering and the for the  army.

On June 30th 1942 Paul Gossen died and his dead results in a change of shareholders capital due to heritage laws. The heirs are Rosa Gossen and the children Charlotte Klarner (charlotte Gossen), Elisabeth Seiler (Elisabeth Gossen) and Hans Gossen. The CEO's of the company now are Hans Gossen and dr. Karl Klarner. At July 1942 the company has some 1.000 employees. Hans Gossen had a more technical feel and together with Erwin Pfaffenberger there were responsible for the invention of several exposure meters, the famous Sixtomat is one of them.
On April 16th 1945 at 17:00 American solders entered the building "Werk III" at the Nagelsbachstrasse. The beginning of clearing is at June 4th 1945 and on middle of 1945 the production of exposure meters is restarted. In the beginning the production for the American occupation only. The production is started with some 80 employees.

August 10th 1945, the American military government let the management of Gossen go after "Entnazifizierung" de-nazification and they were allowed to go back in function again. On June 20th 1948, there is a monetary reform in Germany. The company has now 900 employees of which are some 400 refugees.
1948 - 1949 setup of the Tippa company, Gossen started with the production of the Tippa typewriter. Therefore the building in the Gluckstrasse was used and called "Tippa-Werke". The invention of the Tippa typewriter was very successful and a lot of these typewrites were sold. The production started in 1950 and went on until 1959. At January 1951 already 10.000 units were produced in October 1951 this number was 20.000. Every 8 minutes a new typewriter left the production.  Autumn 1956 The production licenses for the Tippa are sold to "Adler werke" A story in German about this can be found hereafter.

1946 - 1954

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1. Nach dem Krieg Bernhard Grünewald als Leiter der neu aufgebauten TIPPA - Produktion
2. Tippa-Reiseschreibmaschinen-Fertigung bei Paul Gossen & Co, Erlangen, ca. 1950 - 1953
3. Hoffnungsträger TIPPA 5vl Dr. Karl Klarner ganz rechts Herr Raum 3 vr Hans Gossen
Story about the Gossen Tippa Typewriter

June 21st 1948 In Germany there is a so called "wahrungsreform", a monetary reform, the conversion from Reichsmark into Deutsch Mark. The company capital is reformed from RM (ReichsMark)  1.500.000 to DM (Deutsche Mark) 2.100.000. 1950, the number of employees is increased to 1200

After the WWII Gossen started with de development of a complete new exposure meter. As mentioned before, all previous meters were based on the very first meter, the Photolux. There were small changed in the housing, the electric system and the reading scale but not really dramatic changes.
In 1949 Gossen claimed a patent in Germany for a complete new meter, the Sixtomat. After the Sixtomat further development lead to the Sixtomat J in 1952. All meters were made until now are for reflected light measurement.
The Sixtomat J was made for Object and light measurement. in 1954 The Sixtomat X3 came out with an additional light temperature measurement to determine the right filter for color exposures.
The Sixtomat was produced during25 years and a total of 2.500.000 pieces. Probably the best sold meter ever. There were also modified versions for the American market. The request for patent state the names of the inventors for this meter; Erwin Pfaffenberger and Hans Gossen. The development of new exposure and light meters followed rapidly. 1952 Kelvilux, 1953 Majosix, 1954 Microsix, 1956 Sixticolor.

An another item was the development of exposure meters mend to build into camera's and later for automatic exposure control. In 1954 a meter was made to built into serial production camera's. 1959/1960 followed the full automatic aperture controller fir cine camera's from Kodak and Eumig. 1955 A repair service for exposure meters is opened in the Frankfurt branch which is expanded in 1956 for repair of measuring equipment.
The company expanded enormously, new buildings and factories were bought. 1954 Gossen bought the building and the production unit 'Werk I' from the heritage group. June first 1955 Buying of the factory from the company Weber & Ott, Erlangen north of the main building. august the first 1955 setup of a repair service for exposure meters in the Franfurter branch. 1956, extension of the service for repair of measuring equipment. 1956, rebuilding of the in 1954 acquired living and company house Nürnbergerstrasse 47 in a workshop and office building. December 1957, 2030 employees of which 80 in Berlin.
1957, Construction of the multi function building "Pegon" selling of the company ostl. Stadtmaur/Glückstrasse ("Tippa-Werk") by the heritage group to the university.
1959, construction of a new branch in in Eschenbach/Oberpflaz and the acquire of the industrial area and buildings. 1960 the acquire of the Berliner branch from the company Hentschel & Co in Berlin-Wilmersdorf at the Wilhelmsaue 36. July 25th 1960 companies own capital was increased from 2.100.000 to 6.120.000 Mark from own funding.
1960/1961 Take-over and increase of the Frankfurter repair service under own control and reconstruction into a branch location. Spring/summer 1961 reconstruction of the former factory building from the Weber & Ott company. 1961 acquire of the earlier farm grounds of the Stadt Erlangen swapped for the land at the Sedanstrasse (Neuer Markt). October 30th 1963 transfer of the company shares 30% to Siemens & Halske, Munchen and 70% to Company Bergmann AG, Berlin.
1964/1965 Construction of a new transport building.
1965 transfer from the 30% of shares of Gossen GMBH from Siemens & Halske by Bergmann AG. In 1966 the total of employees is now 2471 persons. December 1970 the official name of the company is now GOSSEN GMBH. 1973 start of the construction of a new building in Eschenbach  with on June 15 1973 festivities for the opening of the new branch. January 1974 The number of employees is now a total of 2142, 1657 in Erlangen, 276 in Eschenbach, 193 in Berlin and 16 in Frankfurt.

1954 - 1967

1967 - 1978


1976 The production in Berlin is closed. 1976 Construction of a big warehouse at the Nägelbachstrasse. The old factory at the Sedanstrasse is closed down at the end of 1979 1683 employees of which 264 in the Eschenbach branche. End of 1988 a total of 1233 employees 263 in Eschenbach.

1990 Gebr. Röchling KG acquired the company Gossen GmbH, the company now belongs to the Röchling-Gruppe. In 1991 Gossen GMBH had a financial sales result of 116 million DM with 900 employees. End 1992 / start 1993 the company merged with Metrawatt and became Gossen Metrawatt GmbH.

Autumn 1997 the business unit "Foto- und Lichtmesstechnik" was established as an autonomous company out of the GOSSEN-METRAWATT GmbH. Since then the GOSSEN Foto- und Lichtmesstechnik

Since 1997 the GOSSEN Foto- und Lichtmesstechnik has been on the road to success. More than 75 years experience as manufacturers of high precision meters has proved its worth, particularly in the field of light measurements, as well as the use of innovative techniques in our Research & Development and Production. (Source: Gossen Metrawatt GmbH). During the take over by Metrawatt, nobody was actually interested in the historical information and equipment of the Gossen factory. All paperwork and equipment was destroyed. Ing U. Hitz, responsible for documentation saved a number of exposure meters and documentation he divided over some museums in Germany. Stadtmuseum Erlangen received some special items like the Sixtus C 2 for cine (dummy) exposure meter to build in camera's, the Sixtoflash, a flash unit that never went in production, the Hugy meter, a underwater housing for the Sixtomat, the Lunasix design sample and a single copy.

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1. Von links Hans Gossen Willi Bachmann Fritz Pfaffenberger Betriebsrat Malz Karl Götz Dr. Karl Klarner
2. Von links Georg Pecher (Personalleiter), Georg Götz (Werksleiter), Herr Raum (Kaufm. Leiter), Berthold Schwarz (Prüfwesen) und der Jubilar Bernhard Grünewald beim Sektfrühstück am Jubiläum

A number of patents were filed at the US patent office. By these patents, now available, we can distill an number of inventors working for Gossen GMBH. Erwin Pfaffenberger, Herbert Poppa Karl Goetz, Helmut Dreyer, Leonhard Burkhard, Hans Gossen, Wolf Kroger, Walter Illing, Werner Schultze and many others. Erwin Pfaffenberger (04-04-1906) was the head designer and inventor of Gossen & Co. He came at the company in 1924 as a trainee draughtsman and trough private study he gained his position. Several important patents are written on his name.

Exposure meters were also exported to the USA but not always with the same name and finish. Because the USA was not custom to the DIN assignment, a number of meters for the USA market were modified to only have the ASA assignment, sometimes even with a double ASA assignment. Also the French market received the meters with a French instruction on the scale instead of the standard German text (on the older meters). Not only we see differences in the country versions but also versions made for special companies as Leitz Wetzlar and Kodak. Also we see different version from one type of meter like the Sixtomat in white, black and dark blue and rarely in dark red.

Except used for Photography we see the use of for instance the Ombrux used for the forestry. With a little formula, the Ombrux also could be used as a light meter to measure the amount of lux. (See Ombrux page). A more detailed timeline can be found on the special
Flashlight page.



De official papers about the history of the Gossen company

Some pictures of the Gossen company found on several different sites at the internet

The Gossen heritage is now owned by the museum and archive of the city Erlangen, A part of the Erlanger industrie historie.
Because of the initiative of the former Gossen-Engineer Uwe Hitz a big collection of equipment is saved as a history of the former company.

Stadtmuseum Erlangen

At the Gossen company a museum and an archive was planned to preserve and exposure the history of the company, products and used equipment. After the merger with Metrawatt Nürnberg, there was in no way any interest for this and the employees responsible for clearing and moving to Nürnberg were ordered to destroy al these valuable equipment and information. So due to this collectors are left with little information. This has happened with more companies in those days.

In that time, an employee in the person of Dipl. Ing Uwe Hitz was responsible for technical documentation and company magazine saved a lot of products, prototypes, manuals and other documentation from being destroyed. Due to his personal imitative and negotiations with a number of museums he was able to transfer a lot of these industrial monuments to several museums.

Stadmuseum Erlangen has adopted an extensive collection of exposure meters including production items, prototypes specials like the Sixtoflash that never came into production, the Hugy meter, a underwater housing for the Sixtomat and the development sample of the Lunasix together with a lot of advertisement material, brochures and manuals.
Other documentation material went to the City Archive of Erlangen, "Stadtarchiv Erlangen". On September 7th 1995 the "Erlanger Nachrichten" a local newspaper has placed an article about the transfer from the saved collection to the Erlanger Stadtmuseum. ( Nov. 2010, I am waiting for permission to place this article here.)

Many thanks to the
Stadtmuseum Erlangen for this information.
Some samples of Gossen equipment Stadtmuseum Erlangen (© Stadtmuseum Erlangen)

fotomuseum Zeil, Zeil am Main

With the aid of contacts of the magazine "Photographica Cabinett" I came in contact with Dr. Gerhard Binder, initiator of the "Zeiler Photomuseum" , Zeil am Main Germany. After some email contacts, I received documentation about the preservation of a graphic camera, used at the Gossen company and now on exposure at the Zeiler Photomuseum.

During a visit of Gunter Salomon At Gossen GMBH in Erlangen, Gunter was informed about a huge graphic camera available. First 2 people interested in this camera, decided not to take this camera due to the physical dimensions and eight. Knowing this, Mr. Salomon informed the Zeiler Photomuseum about this.
The museum was very interested and with combined help from technicians, the fire brigade and others the camera was disassembled, transported and assembled again in the museum. In the mean time the camera got a name "Photo-Dinosaurus" because it was big, green and old. With a weight of 1500 Kg and a length of 5 meter this really was enormous. The camera was used at Gossen for photographical process of meter scales and company brochures. The camera is a product of Hohlux GMBH the camera was sold to Gossen at April 21st 1955 with a total cost of 22.815 DM including a 12% special discount.

The camera can be viewed at the museum together with an enormous collection of camera's, accessories and other photographic equipment. I like to express my thanks to Dr. Gerhard Binder for his contribution to this website and the preservation of a part of the Gossen history.
!  Visit the museum in a very nice surrounding and enjoy the "Frankenwein"


Metrawatt GmbH.

Dr. Siegfried Guggenheimer, born 22 November 1875 in Nürnberg, son of Heinrich Guggenheimer and his wife Mathilde Löwenthal He died 8 December 1938 in Florence, Italy. In Nürnberg he completed his education. After his visit at the Industrial school at Nürnberg he studied at the universities of München, Berlin, Genf, Paris and Cambridge. He received the title of Dr. Phil. On October the 10th 1919 he married Marguerite Bloch, born march second 1894 in Basel. A son and a daughter were born. The family lived until 1927 at Maxfeld 7 and thereafter at the Bayreuther strasse 10 and finally at Vogelsgarten 1.

After his study he was an assistant at the University of Frankfurt am Main building a academic career. However he changed his career plans and he registered a company in the trade register. He became a German manufacturer of electrical test and measurement equipment. He started his company in 1906, commercially registered August 20 1906 in Nürnberg. From the start the company they manufactured and sold electrical and measurement equipment. A remarkable point is the vision of Guggenheimer the recognize so early the future of the energy carrier current. The factory was hosted in the Deichslerstarsse 19 in Nürnberg. In 1912 the buildings in the  Schopershofestrasse 52 were bought and in 1917, during WWI, the building next door at nr 54 was bought. At this time, the name of Guggenheimer and the company became well known all over Germany.

In 1933 Dr. Siegfried Guggenheimer was forced by the Nazis to change the name of the company  in Metrawatt AG. In 1937 was Guggenheimer forced to resign from office as managing director because of his Jewish origin he went with his wife and children to London and later on to Florence in Italy

The company was a fierce competitor of P. Gossen & Co. because they made the same kind of products. In 1968 became BBC the major shareholder of the company and in 1973 moved the company to Nurnberg-Langwasser. In 1988 there is a fusion of Asea and BBC so the company is renamed to ABB Metrawatt GmbH. In 1992 is the Rochling group the major shareholder and also the major shareholder of Gossen GmbH and this group decide to a merger of both companies into Gossen-Metrawatt.

Metrawatt made a number of exposure meters starting in aprox. 1937 with the Metraphot. Later the name became Horvex. Also Metrastar was a meter made in 1960. The Sixon 2 was one of the meters made be the company Gossen-Metrawatt.

In late 1997, and under this trade name, the business department "Foto- und Lichtmeßtechnik" (= photo and light-metering technique) had been outsourced by GOSSEN-Metrawatt GmbH and has begun to establish itself as an autonomous unit. As a relatively small company with an orientation on the measurements of light they still exist even with the enormous tsunami of digital photo camera's. They specialized in the fields of photography, Industrial light measurements and medical technology. After more than 75 years of business the company still exists.

Update May 2012.

Very recently I visited Erlangen and went to the old Gossen building in the Nagelsbachstrasse. There is not much that remembers us of the many successful years of production of electric and electronic equipment built at this location. The bridge between the two buildings in the Nagelsbachstrasse and the Sedanstrasse does not longer exist. In fact the building in the Sedanstrasse is complete gone and a complete new building has been erected at that same location. the old factory buildings in front of the Large Gossen building are gone and the area is now a large construction site. The only thing that remember us on this glorious time is the inscription above the main entrance: "Messen ist Wissen"


Former addresses of the company and distributors.

Gossen GMBH
Postfach 1780 D-8520 Erlangen

Gossen GMBH
Nagelbachstrasse 25
D-8250 Erlangen

Gossen- Metrawatt GMBH
Postfach 1333 D-8500 Nurnberg 50.

Gossen Foto und Lichtmesstechnik GnbH
Thomas-Mann strasse 16-20
D-90471 Nurnberg

GOSSEN Foto- und Lichtmesstechnik GmbH
Lina-Ammon-Str. 22 D-90471 Nürnberg

Alfons Bischof
Phone: +49 (911) 86 02 172
Fax: +49 (911) 86 02 142

In many countries Gossen products are handled by
GMC Instruments.

GMC stands for Gossen - Metrawatt - Camille Bauer



USA business was handled by:

Mitropa Corporation, photographic division
50 Broadway NYC

Photoptic Import Corporation
235 Fourth avenue
New York 3, N.Y.

Kling Photo Company, sole U.S. Distributor
25-20 Brooklyn-Queens Expressway West
Post office Box 1060
Woodside, New York 11377

Gossen Service Department
Berkey Marketing Companies Inc
PO box 1060 Woodside N.Y. 11377

Gossen Division
Berkey Marketing Companies
25-20 Brooklyn- Queens Expwy West
Woodside NY 11377
1011 Chestnut street Burbank CA 91506

Bogen Photo Corp.
17-20 Willow st. PO box 712
Fair lawn NJ 07410-0712
Tel. (201) 794-6500

Manfrotto Distribution
P.O. Box 506
565 E. Crescent Avenue
Ramsey, NJ 07446-0506
Tel.: 001/201 818 9500
Fax: 001/201 818 9177

Berkey Marketing Companies Gossen division
25-20 Brooklyn-Queens Expwy, Woodside NY 11377
3400 East 70th Street Long Beach CA 90805


1919 - 1936

Foundation of the company in "Meβgeräte P. Gossen & Co KG,
fabrik für elektrische meβgeräte", Baiersdorf.

1936 - 1941

P. Gossen & Co GmbH


1941 - 1942

WWII German ordonance coding of the Gossen company
Listed as company unknown, "messgerate"

1942 - 1945

WWII German ordonance coding of the Gossen company.
listed as:
Gossen & Co, Fabrik elektrische Messgeräte, Erlangen.

1945 - 1946

Renaming the company after WW2

1946 - 1954

new logo Gossen GmbH

1954 - 1967

changed logo Gossen GmbH

1967 - 1978


1978 - .... 1997

1978 - .... 1997  
1997 - ..... GOSSEN Foto- und Lichtmesstechnik GmbH
1997 ..... now GOSSEN Foto- und Lichtmesstechnik GmbH


Copyright; I respect the copyright of names, trade names and products to all the rightful owners.

Official papers received from Gossen, CGM (Camille Bauer, Gossen, Metrawatt) and Gossen Metrawatt.
Gossen-Chronic history of Gossen by Dipl. Ing. Uwe Hitz.
Information received from the Stadtmuseum Erlangen.
Information received from Fotomuseum Zeil am Main.
Flashlite Magazine nr. 17 1993, Written by Gunter M. Solomon.
cooperation with members of Photographica Cabinett.
Information and documentation received from Simon Spaans, James Olinger, Richard Holzman and many others.Several sources on the Internet.
Information found in several Gossen equipment manuals.
Information from the newspaper 'Erlangen', and 'das neue Erlangen'

Note: There is information and there are pictures in this story of who I don't have the permission to publish due to the fact the author could not be reached or has passed away.
To complete the story I have published them anyway but if anyone has a problem with this, let me know and I will remove them from this page.


Copyright (C) 2010, 2011, 2012  E. van der Aa, Myphotoweb.com  Updated jan 21 2017